مناسب ترین نوع، مکان و ارتفاع تله های فرومونی بید گوجه فرنگی Tuta absoluta و تعیین تعداد نسل های آن با روش روز- درجه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان قزوین، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

بید گوجه فرنگی آفت جدیدی است که در سال‌های اخیر با ورود به کشور در مدت کوتاه و پراکنش وسیع و سریع در مناطق مختلف گوجه کاری، به یکی از مهم ترین عوامل خسارتزای این محصول به ویژه در مزارع فضای آزاد تبدیل شد. شناخت دوره فعالیت و خسارت بید گوجه‌فرنگی در مزارع و نیز مطلوب ترین نوع و شیوه کاربرد تله های فرومونی به عنوان ابزار پایش و ردیابی آن به منظور اخذ تصمیمات مدیریتی بسیار ضروری بوده و هدف این مطالعه است. بر این اساس در این تحقیق ابتدا موثرترین نوع و ارتفاع نصب تله های فرومونی به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل تعیین و سپس بهترین مکان نصب تله مشخص شد. فاکتور اول نوع تله شامل تله فرومونی دلتا، تله فرومونی تشتی و تله نوری – فرومونی و فاکتور دوم ارتفاع نصب تله ها، شامل ارتفاع سطح زمین، 50 سانتی متر و 2 متر بالاتر از سطح زمین بودند. هر دو آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار که در شهرستان جیرفت انجام شد. در بخش دیگر، در یک مزرعه گوجه فرنگی در شهرستان قزوین تعداد نسل های حشره و دوره فعالیت آن بر اساس روش محاسبه روز درجه با نصب دستگاه ثبت کننده اطلاعات هواشناسی و نیز یک تله فرومونی دلتا، تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که تله فرومونی دلتا در ارتفاع 50 سانتی متر از سطح زمین و 20 متر دورتر از حاشیه مزرعه بالاترین کارایی را داشته است. همچنین مشخص شد این حشره از اواسط فصل زراعی در مزرعه ظاهر شده و جمعیت آن به تدریج افزایش یافته و در سال 4 نسل ایجاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The most suitable type, height and location of Tuta absoluta pheromone traps and determination of its generations by degree day method

نویسندگان [English]

  • P. Namvar 1
  • B. Gharaei 2
1 Plant Protection Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran
2 Plant Protection Research Department, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Tuta absoluta is a new pest which after its entry to the country and fast and wide distribution became one of the most damaging agents of tomato especially in open fields. Finding its activity period in the field and the most suitable types and ways for the use of pheromone traps as a monitoring tool, are necessary to make management decisions. So, in this study, at first the most effective type and height of pheromone trap in a factorial experiment and then the best location in the field, were determined. First factor was the trap types which were delta, water pan and ferolite. Second factor was trap height and included ground, 50 cm and 2m up the ground. Both experiments were done in randomized block designs with 4 replicates in a tomato field in Jiroft. In another experiment and in a tomato field in Qazvin, the leaf miner´s generations and its activity period were determined by the method of degree day using a Testo set and a delta pheromone trap. Results showed that the delta pheromone trap on 50 cm up to the ground and 20m far from the field margin had the highest effectiveness. Also it was revealed that T. absoluta emerged in the middle of growing season and its population density increased gradually and it had 4 generations in a year.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tuta absoluta
  • Delta trap
  • Water pan Pheromone baited trap
  • Ferolite trap
  • Generation numbers
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