بررسی حساسیت چند رقم زیتون به مگس میوه زیتون، (Bactrocera oleae Rossi (Dip.: Tephritidae

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان، بخش گیاه پزشکی، رشت، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مگس میوه زیتون، (Rossi) Bactrocera oleae، از آفات کلیدی زیتون در مناطق زیتون­ کاری جهان و ایران است. این آفت تک ­میزبانه و مونوفاژ بوده که در سال 1383 به مناطق زیتون­ کاری شمال کشور وارد شده و خسارت وارد می­ کند. فعالیت آفت باعث کاهش کمّی و کیفی محصول می ­شود. استفاده از ارقام مقاوم و شناسایی سازوکار­های مقاومت در درختان مقاوم نسبت به این آفت می ­تواند در کنترل بهتر این مشکل موثر باشد. از آنجا که سال­های متمادی است باغ­داران سنتی زیتون عملیات خاص زراعی و یا سم­پاشی برای کنترل آفت انجام نمی ­دهند، لذا در اختیار قرار دادن اطلاعات مربوط به مزایای ارقام مقاوم یا متحمل به مگس میوه زیتون، می­ تواند به عنوان یکی از روش­ های کنترلی از سوی باغداران، مد نظر قرار گیرد. در تحقیق حاضر 10 رقم امید بخش زیتون (‘Arbequina’، ‘Manzanilla’، ‘Leccino’، ‘Zard’، ‘Konservalia’، ‘Kalamata’، ‘Mari’، ‘Amigdalifolia’، ‘Roghani’ و ‘Fishomi’) در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون رودبار استان گیلان از نظر تفاوت در میزان خسارت و ویژگی­ های مورفولوژیکی میوه زیتون و همچنین ترکیبات شیمیایی موجود مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج به­ دست آمده ارقام‘Arbequina’  و ‘Kalamata’، به عنوان ارقام دارای خسارت نسبی کم مگس زیتون (میانگین درصد سالیانه خسارت 8 الی 11 درصد)، می­ تواند در برنامه­ های توسعه ارقام زیتون مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. بین ویژگی های مرفولوژیکی و همچنین ترکیبات شیمیایی موجود در روغن زیتون با خسارت مگس زیتون همبستگی مشاهده نشد. در ضمن، ترکیب Oleuropein می ­تواند به عنوان یکی از ترکیباتی که به احتمال زیاد در ایجاد مقاومت به مگس میوه زیتون نقش داشته باشد، در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on susceptiblity of several varieties of olive trees to olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Dip.: Tephritidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. R. Abbasi Mojdehi 1
  • A. Hosseini Gharalari 2
  • A. A. Keyhanian 2
  • N. Koopi 2
1 Plant Protection Research Department, Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Rasht, Iran
2 Department of Agricultural Entomology Research, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, is a key pest of olive on olive-growing areas in the world including, Iran. This monophagous pest was reported in 2004 in olive-growing areas of North of Iran, causing serious damage. Its damage results in reduction of yield quality and quantity. Deployment of resistant varieties and detecting resistance mechanisms can be useful in management programms of this pest. As treditional farmers do not apply cultural or chemical methods to control this pest, deploying resistant varieties will be more acceptable by farmers. In this research, 10 promising olive varieties in Roudbar Olive Research Station (Guilan province) were studied in order to determine the infestation rate of olive fruit fly and chemical compounds of olive drupes (‘Arbequina’, ‘Manzanilla’, ‘Leccino’, ‘Zard’, ‘ Konservalia’, ‘Amigdalifolia’, ‘Kalamata’, ‘Roghani’, ‘ Mari’ and ‘Fishomi’). ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Kalamata’ varieties can be considered in developing olive varieties, due to low rate of yearly infestation (8 to 11%). There was no correlation between infestation rate and either morphological traits and chemical compounds in olive oil. However, oleuropein can be considered as one of the resistance factors to olive fruit fly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Olive
  • Resistance
  • varieties
  • phytochemical
  • host-plant preference
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