تأثیر کاشت گیاهان گلدار در باغ‌های انار بر میزان پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) توسط زنبور Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

گیاهان گلدار با تأمین شهد باعث جلب و نگهداری دشمنان طبیعی و افزایش طول عمر و باروری آن‌ها می‌شوند. در این پژوهش تأثیر کاشت پنج گیاه گلدار شامل بومادران البرزی (Achillea millefolium subsp. elbursensis)، آویشن (Thymus daenensis)، پونه (Mentha pulegium)، بابونه (Matricaria chamomilla) و رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare) در باغ‌های انار همراه رهاسازی زنبور تریکوگراما، روی میزان پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار و درصد خسارت انار بررسی شد. همچنین جلب­ کننده‌ ترین این گیاهان برای زنبور پارازیتویید Trichogramma brassicae تعیین شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 8 تیمار و 4 تکرار در دو سال متوالی (1390-1388) در اصفهان انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین تیمارها از نظر درصد پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار، درصد خسارت انار و میزان جلب زنبورها به گیاهان تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت. مقایسه میانگین‌ها مشخص کرد تیمار رازیانه دارای بیشترین (72/6%) و تیمار شاهد منفی (بدون پوشش گیاهی و بدون رهاسازی شفیره‌های کرم گلوگاه انار) دارای کمترین (12/2%) درصد پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار بود. همچنین تیمار شاهد مثبت (بدون پوشش گیاهی همراه با رهاسازی شفیره‌های کرم گلوگاه انار) دارای بیشترین (11/33%) و تیمار رازیانه دارای کمترین (92/24%) درصد خسارت انار بود. در بین گیاهان گلدار، گیاه رازیانه با بیشترین درصد پارازیتیسم تخم بید غلات (19/11%) جلب کننده‌ترین گیاه برای زنبورهای تریکوگراما بود. به منظور تقویت عوامل کنترل بیولوژیک پیشنهاد می‌شود کاشت گیاهان گلدار در برنامه مدیریت تلفیقی آفت کرم گلوگاه انار در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting flowering plants in pomegranate orchards on egg parasitism level of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), by Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko

نویسنده [English]

  • M. S. Emami
Plant Protection Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Flowering plants can attract and retain natural enemies and increase their longevity and fecundity by providing pollen and nectar. In this study the effect of flowering plants including: yarrow (Achillea millefolium subsp. elbursensis), thyme (Thymus daenensis), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) were investigated on eggs parasitism of Ectomyelois ceratoniae by Trichogramma brassicae in Isfahan pomegranate orchards during 2009-2011. Relative attractiveness of floral plants to T. brassicae was assessed using Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) egg cards. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 4 replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and mean comparison were performed using Duncan's multiple range test. The results indicated that fennel planting caused the highest parasitism (6.72%) of the pest eggs and the lowest damage of fruits (24.92%). The Fennel was the most preferred flower to attract Trichogramma wasps (11.19%) among the floral plants tested. In order to improve the biological control of the pest, it is recommended that planting flowering plants can be considered in integrated pomegranate moth management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biological control
  • fennel
  • Trichogramma wasp
Abd El-Kareim, A. I., El-Nagar, M. E. and Marouf, A. E. 2008. Is Matricaria chamomilla a beneficial insectary plant? Journal of Agricultural Science of Mansoura University 33 (4): 6777–6786.

Ambrosino, M. D., Luna, J. M., Jepson, P. C. and Wratten, S. D. 2006. Relative frequencies of visits to selected insectary plants by predatory hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae), other beneficial insects and herbivores. Environmental Entomology 35 (2): 394-400.

Ashley, T. R. and Gonzalez, D. 1974. Effect of various food substances on longevity and fecundity of Trichogramma. Environmental Entomology 3: 169-171.

Baggen, L. R. and Gurr, G. M. 1998. The influence of food on Copidosoma koedhleri (Hym.: Encyrtidae) and the use of flowering plants as a habitat management tool to enhance biological control of the potato moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae). Biological Control 11: 9-17.

Begum, M., Gurr, G. M., Wratten, S. D., Hedberg, P. R., Nicol, H. I. 2006. Using selective food plants to maximize biological control of vineyard pests. Journal of Applied Entomology 43: 547–554.

Beirne, B. 1962. Trends in applied biological control of in sects. Annual Review of Entomology 7: 387-400.

Bigler, F., Meyer, A. and Bosshart, S. 1987. Quality assessment in Trichogramma maidis Pintureau reared from eggs of the factitious hosts Ephestia kuehniella Zell. and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier). Journal of Applied Entomology 104: 340-353.

Bowie M. H., Wratten, S. D. and White, A. J. 1995. Agronomy and phenology of ‘‘companion plants’’ of potential for enhancement of insect biological control. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Research 23: 423–427.

Colley, M. R., and Luna J. M. 2000. Relative attractiveness of potential beneficial insectary plants to aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Environmental Entomology 29(5): 1054-1059.

Emami, M. S. 2012. Study on planting of floral plants to increase parasitism rate of Ectomyelois ceratoniae eggs by Trichogramma wasps in Pomegranate orchards. Final report of Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, No. 41659.

Evans, E. W. and Swallow, J. G. 1993. Numerical responses of natural enemies to artificial honeydew in Utah alfalfa. Environmental Entomology 22: 1392-1401.

Foster, M. A. and Ruesink, W. G. 1984. Influence of flowering weeds associated with reduced tillage in corn on a black cutworm (Lep.: Noctuidae) parasitoid Meteorus rubens. Environmental Entomology 13: 664-668.

Ghaemian, P., Sarraf Moayeri, H. R. and Farrokhi, Sh. 2013. Laboratory and field evaluation of Trichogramma embryophagum efficiency in presence of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum. Plant Pests Research 3 (2): 43-51.

Gilkerson, L. and Grossman, J. 1991.The organic gardening guide to important beneficial and mites of North America. Organic Gardening Magazine pp. 46-56.

Goulson, D. 1999. Foraging strategies of insects for gathering nectar and pollen, and implications for plant ecology and evolution. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2: 185–209.

Goulson, D. and Wright, N. P. 1998. Flower constancy in the hoverflies Episyrphus balteatus. (Degeer) and Syrphus ribesii (L.) (Syrphidae). Behavior Ecology 9(3): 213-219.

Gurr, G. M. and Nicol, H. I. 2000. Effect of food on longevity of adults of Trichogramma carverae Oatman and Pinto and Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 39: 185-187.

Hagen, K. S. 1986. Ecosystem analysis: plant cultivars, entomophagous species and food supplements. In Boethel, D. J. and Eikenbary, R. D. (Eds.). Interactions of plant resistance and parasitoids and predators of insects. Wily, New York. pp. 151-197.

Haslett, J. R. 1989. Interpreting patterns of resource utilization: randomness and selectivity in pollen feeding by adult hoverflies. Oecologia 81: 433-442.

Herrera, C. M. 1995. Microclimate and individual variation in pollinators: flowering plants are more than their flowers. Ecology 76:1516–1524.

Hickman, J. and Wratten, S. D. 1996. Use of Phacelia tanacetifolia strips to enhance biological control of aphids by hoverfly larvae in cereal fields. Journal of Economic Entomology 89: 832-840.

Hoffman, F. 2005. Plants that attract beneficial insects. From http://www.farmerfred.com/plants_that_attract_benefi.html.

Idris, A. B. and Grafius, E. 1995. Wildflowers as nectar sources for Diadegma insulare (Hym.: Ichneumonide) a parasitoid of diamond back moth (Lep.: Yponomeutidae). Environmental Entomology 24: 1726-1735.

Jacob, H. S. and Evans, E. W. 1998. Effects of sugar spray and aphids’ honeydew on field populations of the parasitoid Bathyplectes curculionis (Hym.: Ichneumonidae). Environmental Entomology 27: 1563-1568.

Jacob, H. S. and Evans, E. W. 2000. Influence of carbohydrate foods and mating on longevity of parasitoid Bathyplectes curculionis (Hym.: Ichneumonidae). Environmental Entomology 29: 1088-1095.

Johanowicz, D. L. and Mitchell, E. R. 2000. Effects of Sweet Alyssum flowers on the longevity of the parasitoid wasps Cotesia marginiventris (Hym.: Braconidae) and Diadegma insulare (Hym.: Ichneumonidae). Florida Entomologist 83(1): 41-47.

Leatemia, J. A., Laing, J. E. and Corrigan, J. E. 1995. Effects of adult nutrition on longevity, fecundity, and offspring sex ratio of Trichogramma minutum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Canadian Entomologist 127: 245-254.

Leius, K. 1967. Influence of wild flowers on parasitism of tent caterpillar and codling moth. Canadian Entomologist 99: 444-446.

Lewis, W. J., Stapel, J. O., Cortesero, A. M. and Takasu, K. 1998. Understanding how parasitoids balance food and host's needs: importance to biological control. Biological Control 11: 175-183.

Lovei, G. L., Hodgeson, D. J., Macleod, A. and Wratten, S. D. 1993. Attractiveness of some novel crops for flower-visiting hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae): comparisons from two continents. In Corey S. (Ed.). Pest control and sustainable agriculture. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. pp. 368-370.

Moezipour, M. 2006. Effect of different temperature and humidity treatments on some biological parameters of two Trichogramma brassicae Bezd. populations, collected from pomegranate orchards of Yazd and Saveh. M.Sc. thesis. Isfahan University of Technology.

Nagarkatti, S., Tobin, P. C., Saunders, M. C. and Muza, A. j. 2003. Release of native Trichogramma minutum to control grape berry moth. Canadian Entomologist 135(4): 589-598.

Ndakidemi, B., Mtei, K. and Ndakidemi, P. A. 2016. The potential of common beneficial insects and strategies for maintaining them in bean fields of Sub Saharan Africa. American Journal of Plant Sciences 7: 425-436.

Patt, J. M., Hamilton, G. C. and Lashomb, J. H. 1997. Foraging success of parasitoid wasps on flowers: interplay of insect morphology, floral architecture and searching behavior. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 83: 21-30.

Rothery, F. A. 1994: Hoverfly foraging on hedgerow flowers. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 17: 148-155.

Sadeghi, H. 2008. Abundance of adult hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on different flowering plants. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 6 (1): 47-51.

Shakeri, M. 2004. Analytical revising of carob moth studies in Iran. Report of management problems of carob moth in Iran. Agricultural research center of Yazd. Pp. 25 and 28.

Shearer, P. W. and Atanassov, A. 2004. Impact of peach extrafloral nectar on key biological characteristics of Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 97 (3): 789-792.

Sutherland, J. P., Sullivan, M. S. and Poppy, G. M. 1999. The influence of floral character on the foraging behaviour of the hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 93:157–164.

Sutherland, J. P., Sullivan, M. S. and Poppy, G. M. 2001. Distribution and abundance of aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in wildflower patches and field margin habitats. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 3: 57–64.

Suverkropp, B. P., Bigler, F. and Van Lenteren, J. C. 2009. Dispersal behaviour of Trichogramma brassicae in maize fields. Bulletin of Insectology 62 (1): 113-120.

Tylianakis, J. M., Didham, R. K. and Wratten, S. D. 2004. Improved fitness of aphid parasitoids receiving resource subsidies. Ecology 85: 658–66.

Valenzuela, H. R. 1994. Insectaries: The use of insectary plants as a reservoir for beneficial in vegetable agroecosystems. Hawaii University Coop Extension Service. Vegetable crops update 4 (5): 1-7.

van Heiningen, T. G., Pak, G. A., Hassan, S. A. and van Lenteren J. C. 1985. Four years results of experimental releases of Trichogramma egg parasites against Lepidopteran pests in cabbage. Mededelingen van de Faculteit der Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent 50: 379-388.

van Lenteren, J. C., van Vianen, A. Gast, H. F. and Kortenhoff, A. 1987. The parasite-host relationship between Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hym.: Aphelinidae) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hym.: Aleyrodidae) XVI. Food effects on oogenesis, oviposition, life-span and fecundity of Encarsia formosa and other Hymenopterous parasitoids. Journal of Applied Entomology 103: 69-84.

Witting-Bissinger,. B. E., Orr, D. B. and Linker, H. M. 2008. Effects of floral resources on fitness of the parasitoids Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Control 47 (2): 180-186.

Wratten, S. D., Berndt, L., Gurr, G., Tylianakis, J., Fernando, P. and Didham, R. 2003. Adding floral diversity to enhance parasitoid fitness and efficacy. The first international symposium on biological control of Arthropods. pp. 211-214.