تأثیر کاشت گیاهان گلدار در باغ‌های انار بر میزان پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) توسط زنبور Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران


گیاهان گلدار با تأمین شهد باعث جلب و نگهداری دشمنان طبیعی و افزایش طول عمر و باروری آن‌ها می‌شوند. در این پژوهش تأثیر کاشت پنج گیاه گلدار شامل بومادران البرزی (Achillea millefolium subsp. elbursensis)، آویشن (Thymus daenensis)، پونه (Mentha pulegium)، بابونه (Matricaria chamomilla) و رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare) در باغ‌های انار همراه رهاسازی زنبور تریکوگراما، روی میزان پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار و درصد خسارت انار بررسی شد. همچنین جلب­ کننده‌ ترین این گیاهان برای زنبور پارازیتویید Trichogramma brassicae تعیین شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 8 تیمار و 4 تکرار در دو سال متوالی (1390-1388) در اصفهان انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین تیمارها از نظر درصد پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار، درصد خسارت انار و میزان جلب زنبورها به گیاهان تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت. مقایسه میانگین‌ها مشخص کرد تیمار رازیانه دارای بیشترین (72/6%) و تیمار شاهد منفی (بدون پوشش گیاهی و بدون رهاسازی شفیره‌های کرم گلوگاه انار) دارای کمترین (12/2%) درصد پارازیتیسم تخم کرم گلوگاه انار بود. همچنین تیمار شاهد مثبت (بدون پوشش گیاهی همراه با رهاسازی شفیره‌های کرم گلوگاه انار) دارای بیشترین (11/33%) و تیمار رازیانه دارای کمترین (92/24%) درصد خسارت انار بود. در بین گیاهان گلدار، گیاه رازیانه با بیشترین درصد پارازیتیسم تخم بید غلات (19/11%) جلب کننده‌ترین گیاه برای زنبورهای تریکوگراما بود. به منظور تقویت عوامل کنترل بیولوژیک پیشنهاد می‌شود کاشت گیاهان گلدار در برنامه مدیریت تلفیقی آفت کرم گلوگاه انار در نظر گرفته شود.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting flowering plants in pomegranate orchards on egg parasitism level of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), by Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko

نویسنده [English]

  • M. S. Emami
Plant Protection Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Flowering plants can attract and retain natural enemies and increase their longevity and fecundity by providing pollen and nectar. In this study the effect of flowering plants including: yarrow (Achillea millefolium subsp. elbursensis), thyme (Thymus daenensis), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) were investigated on eggs parasitism of Ectomyelois ceratoniae by Trichogramma brassicae in Isfahan pomegranate orchards during 2009-2011. Relative attractiveness of floral plants to T. brassicae was assessed using Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) egg cards. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 4 replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and mean comparison were performed using Duncan's multiple range test. The results indicated that fennel planting caused the highest parasitism (6.72%) of the pest eggs and the lowest damage of fruits (24.92%). The Fennel was the most preferred flower to attract Trichogramma wasps (11.19%) among the floral plants tested. In order to improve the biological control of the pest, it is recommended that planting flowering plants can be considered in integrated pomegranate moth management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biological control
  • fennel
  • Trichogramma wasp
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