عنوان مقاله [English]
Pest monitoring is a key component of integrated pest management program in agricultural ecosystems, so that prior to deciding on the use of pest management practices, appropriate information on pest density should be available. In this study, the efficacy of yellow sticky cards and D-vac method was investigated to determine the most practical method for sampling of some wheat pests including, Oscinella frit L., Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. (Diptera: Chloropidae), Cephus pygmaeus L. (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) and Psammotettix alienus Dahlb. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).This study was conducted at Zarghan region of Fars Province, during 2013 and 2014. Taylor power law was used to determine the spatial distribution of the pests. In order to determine the optimal sample size, the sequential sampling with constant accuracy of 0.2 and Green's method were used. In yellow card sampling method, C. pygmaeus had a clumped distribution and P. alienus, C. pumilionis and O. frit had a random distribution. All four pest species collected with the D-vac method had a random distribution pattern. The results showed that the number of required sampling units decreased with increasing population density of the pests. Whenever the average density of the C. pumilionis, O. frit, C. pygmaeus and P. alienus in each yellow card is one, the number of required samples with a precision level of 0.2 would be 21, 27, 42 and 48, and when the average density of these pests in each unit of the D-vac method is one, the number of required samples would be 19, 13, 33, and 39, respectively. Results showed that based on precision and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling method for monitoring these four pests is using yellow sticky cards. The results of this study can be useful in integrated pest management programs of these four pests in wheat fields.
Altinayar, G. 1975. Studies on the distribution, bio-ecology, crop losses and methods of control of the stem sawflies (Cephus pygmaeus L. and Trachelus tabidus F. (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)) in grain crops in Konya Province, Turkey. Arastirma Eserleri Serisi 36: 135 pp.
Archer, T. L. and Bynum, E. D. 1992. Economic injury level for the Russian wheat aphid (Hom. Aphididae) on dryland winter wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 987-92.
Banita, E. and Popov, C. 1976. The wheat stem fly (Cephus pygmaeus L.), ecological aspects of the populations and economic importance in the years 1973-1975. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor 4(3): 377-387.
Banita, E., Popov, C., Luca, E., Cojocaru, D., Paunescu, G. and Vilau, F. 1992. Elements of integrated control of wheat stem sawflies (Cephus pygmaeus L. and Trachelus tabidus F.). Probleme de Protectia Plantelor 20(3-4):169-185.
Behdad E. 1993. Pests of field crops in Iran. Neshat publication, Isfahan, Iran (In Farsi).
Costello, M. J. and Daane, K. M. 1997. Comparison of sampling methods used to estimate spider (Araneae) species abundance and composition in grape vineyards. Environmental Entomology 26(2): 142-149.
Ghadiri, V. and Safai, N. 2001. Effect of plant density on infestation of wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus L.). Seed and Plant Improvment Journal 17(3): 286-293 (In Farsi).
Kogan, M. 1998. Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments. Annual Review of Entomology 43(1): 243-270.
Latifian, M. 2005. Decision making system based on sequential sampling method in IPM of wheat in Lorestan Province. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources 12(5): 136-145 (In Farsi).
Latifian, M., Seyedoleslami, H. and Khajeali, J. 2009. Comparison of several sampling techniques to estimate population densities of the grape leafhopper Arboridia kermanshah Dlabola (Hem., Cicadellidae). Journal of Entomological Research 1(2): 95-108. (In Farsi)
Lotfipour, M., Behjatnia, S. A. A., Afsharifar, A. and Izadpanah K. 2013. Distribution and partial biological characterization of wheat and barley strains of wheat dwarf virus in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 49: 17-31.
Mohiseni, A. 2017. Spatial distribution and fixed precision sequential sampling plan of Sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps Put.) immature stages in rainfed wheat fields using 0.1 m2 quadrat size. Plant Pest Research 6(4): 31-48 (in Farsi).
Mohiseni, A., Soleymannezhadian, E., Rajabi, G. R., Mosadegh, M. and Pirhadi, A. 2008. Sequential sampling of overwintered Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Het.: Scutelleridae) in rainfed wheat fields in Borujerd, Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 27(2): 43-59 (In Farsi).
Wang, Y., Mao, Q., Liu, W., Mar, T., Wei, T., Liu, Y. and Wang, X. 2014. Localization and distribution of wheat dwarf virus in its vector leafhopper, Psammotettix alienus Phytopathology 104(8): 897-904.