رقابت درون گونه ای مرحله لاروی نژادهای جنسی و غیرجنسی زنبور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) در تخمریزی همزمان و متناوب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز

چکیده

در سوپرپارازیتیسم، میزبان بیش از یک بار توسط یک یا چند زنبور هم‌گونه پارازیته می‌شود، پدیده‌ای که منجر به رقابت بین نابالغین در بدن میزبان می‌شود. در مطالعه حاضر رقابت میان نژادهای جنسی و غیرجنسی زنبور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall)(Braconidae: Aphidiinae) در معرفی همزمان و اولویت‌دار زنبورهای ماده مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. همچنین ویژگی‌های زیستی زنبورهای ظاهر شده ‌در رقابت بین دو نژاد مطالعه شد. به این منظور، هشت زنبور ماده از هر نژاد  به طور هم زمان و یا با اولویت زمانی 24 ساعت، به 40 پوره‌ی سن دوم شته سیاه باقلا، Aphis fabae Scopoli معرفی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اولویت معرفی نژادها به طور معنی‌داری روی نتیجه‌ی رقابت نقش دارد. چنان‌چه هنگامی که ماده‌های هر یک از نژادها زودتر معرفی شدند، به طور معنی‌داری تعداد نتاج بیشتری از آن نژاد نیز ظاهر شد. با این حال، در شرایط معرفی همزمان، تعداد بیشتری از نتاج نژاد جنسی در مقایسه با غیرجنسی ظاهر شد. در نژاد جنسی، کوتاه‌ترین طول دوره رشدی نتاج هنگامی دیده شد که ماده‌های جنسی نسبت به ماده‌های غیرجنسی زودتر به شته‌های میزبان معرفی شده بودند. سایر ویژگی‌های مورفومتریک و زیستی مورد مطالعه شامل طول ساق پای عقب، عرض کپسول سر، اندازه تخمدان، تعداد تخمک و اندازه تخمک تحت تأثیر ترتیب تخم‌گذاری نژادها قرار نگرفت. یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر نشان می‌دهد که ماده‌های جنسی L. fabarum در رقابت با ماده­ های غیرجنسی موفق ­تر بودند و این برتری نسبی نژاد جنسی می‌تواند در شرایط محدودیت میزبان، اهمیتی دوچندان پیدا کند.           

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Intraspecific competition between the larval instars of sexual and asexual strains of the parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae), in the simultaneous and successive ovipositions

نویسندگان [English]

  • E. Mohseni
  • A. Rasekh
  • F. Kocheli
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In superparasitism, a host is parasitized by one or more conspecific females, a phenomenon resulting in immature competition within the host’s body. In the present study, the competition between sexual and asexual strains of the parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Braconidae: Aphidiinae), was studied in simultaneous and successive introductions. The biological traits by both strains were determined in surviving individuals of superparasitized aphids as well. For this purpose, eight wasp females of each strain were introduced into 40 second instar of black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli, simultaneously or by a 24-hour priority. Our results revealed that the early introduction of each strain had a significant effect on the number of emerging adults of that strain. However, in simultaneous introduction, a greater number of sexual progeny emerged than asexual ones. The development time of sexual progeny was significantly decreased when their females were introduced earlier into the host aphids. Other morphological and biological traits (hind tibia length, head width, ovary area, egg load and egg size) of surviving individuals of superparasitized aphids were not affected by the oviposition sequence of the strains. The findings showed that sexual L. fabarum females were successful in competition with asexual females, the superiority of which could be more important in a host limitation conditions.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphis fabae
  • biological characteristics
  • larval competition
  • egg load
  • egg size

Almasi, A., Rasekh, A., Esfandiari, M., Askari Seyahooei, M. and Ziaee, M. 2016. Effect of different nymphal instars of Aphis gossypii Glover on progeny fitness in Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall, under laboratory conditions. Proceedings of 22nd Iranian Plant Protection Congress. 27-30 August, Iran. pp. 550.

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A. and Allahyari, H. 2013. Effect of different nymphal stages of Aphis fabae Scopoli on some biological features of thelytokous population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture) 35 (4): 83-94. (In Farsi).

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A. and Mohammadi, Z. 2015. A comparison of life history traits of sexual and asexual strains of the parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Ecological Entomology 40: 50-61.

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A., Michaud, J. P. and Allahyari, H. 2013. Morphometric indicators for quality assessment in the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae). European Journal of Entomology 110: 519-525.

Baghery-Matin, Sh., Sahragard, A. and Rasoolian, G. 2005. Some behavioural characteristics of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) parasiting Aphis fabae (Homoptera: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Entomology 20: 64-68.

Bai, B. and Mackauer, M. 1992. Influence of superparasitism on development rate and adult size in a solitary parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. Functional Ecology 6: 302-304.

Barton, N. H. and Charlesworth, B. 1998. Why Sex and Recombination? Science 281: 1986-1990. 

Belshaw, R. and Quicke, D. L. 2003. The cytogenetics of thelytoky in a predominantly asexual parasitoid wasp with covert sex. Genome 461: 170-173.

Beukeboom, L. W. and Pijnacker, L. P. 2000. Automictic parthenogenesis in the parasitoid Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) revisited. Genome 43:939–944. 

Chow, F. J. and Mackauer, M. 1984. Inter- and intraspecific larval competition in Aphidius smithi and Praon pequodorum (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Canadian Entomologist 116: 1097-1107.

Chow, F. J. and Mackauer, M. 1985. Multiparasitism of the pea aphid: Stage of development of parasite determines survival of Aphidius smithi and Proan pequodorum (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). The Canadian Entomologist 117: 133-134.

De Moraes, C. M., Cortesero, A. M., Stapel, J. O. and Lewis, W. J. 1999. Intrinsic and extrinsic competitive interactions between two larval parasitoids of Heliothis virescens. Ecological Entomology24: 402-410.

Debach, P. and Rosen, D. 1991. Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press.

Fisher, R. C. 1971. Aspects of physiology of endoparasitic Hymenoptera. Biological Reviews 46: 243-278.

Goubault, M., Plantegenest, M., Poinsot, D. and Cortesero, A. M. 2003. Effect of expected offspring survival probability on host selection in a solitary parasitoid. Entomologia Expermentalis et Applicata 109: 123-131.

Harvey, J. A., Gols, R. and Strand, M. R. 2009. Intrinsic competition and its effects on the survival and development of three species of endoparasitoid wasps. Entomologia Expermentalis et Applicata 130: 238-48.

Harvey, J. A., Poelman, E. H. and Tanaka, T. 2013. Intrinsic Inter- and Intraspecific Competition in Parasitoid Wasps. Annual Review of Entomology 58: 333-351.

Hubbard, S. F., Marris, G., Reynolds, A. and Rowe, G. W. 1987. Adaptive patterns in the avoidance of superparasitism by solitary parasitic wasps. Journal of Animal Ecology 56: 387-401.

Iwasa, Y., Susuki, Y. and Matsuda, H. 1984. Theory of oviposition strategy of parasitoids. I. Effect of mortality and limited egg number. Theoretical Population Biology 26: 205-227.

Jervis, M. A. and Kidd, N. A. C. 1986. Host-feeding strategies in hymenopteran parasitoids. Biological Reviews 61: 395-434.

Mackauer, M. 1982. Fecundity and host utilization of the aphid parasite Aphelinus semiflavus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) at two host densities. The Canadian Entomologist 114: 721-726.

Mohammadi, Z., Rasekh, A., Kocheli, F. and Habibpour, B. 2015. Determining the best morphometric indices for quality control in a sexual population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Plant Pests Research 5(1): 37-48. (In Farsi).


 

Mohseni, L. 2015. Competition between two strains (unisexual and bisexual) of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) and the effect of superparasitism on offsprings fitness. Msc., thesis. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. (In Farsi).

Mohseni, L., Rasekh, A. and Kocheili, F. 2016. Comparative effect of wasp density in unisexual and bisexual strains of Lysiphlebus fabarum, on superparasitism in the Black bean aphid, Aphis fabae. Journal of Plant Protection 30 (2): 251-260.

Mossadegh, M. S., Stary, P. and Salehipour, H. 2011. Aphid parasitoids in a dry lowland area of Khuzestan, Iran (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Asian Journal of Biological Sciences 4: 175-181.

Rasekh, A., Kharazi-Pakdel, A., Michaud, J. P., Allahyari, H. and Rakhshani, E. 2011. Report of a thelytokous population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 30(2): 83-84.

Reineke, A., Roberts, H. L. S. and Schmidt, O. 2004. Two coexisting lines of the endoparasitoid Venturia canescens show differences in reproductive success under conspecific superparasitism. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 167-173.

Roberts, H. L. S., True, O. and Schmidt, O. 2004. The development of the endoparasitoid wasp Venturia caneseens in superparasitized Ephestia kuehniella. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 839-846.

Salt, G. 1961. Competition among insect parasitoids. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 15: 96-119.

Sasaki, A. and Godfray, H. C. J. 1999. A model for the coevolution of resistance and virulence in coupled host parasitoid interactions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Ser B. 6-8 July, England. 266: 455–463.

Sequeira, R. and Mackauer, M. 1992. Covariance of adult size and developmental time in the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi in relation to the size of its host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Evolutionary Ecology 6: 34-44.

SPSS. 1998. SPSS 8.0 for Windows. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

Stary, P. 1983. The perennial stinging nettle (Urtica nettle) as a reservoir of aphid parasitoid (Aphidiiidae). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 80: 81-86.

Stary, P. 1999. Aggregations of aphid parasitoid adults (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 105: 270-279.

Stouthamer, R. 2003. The use of unisexual wasps in biological control. In Quality conrol and production of biological control agents: Theory and testing procedures (Ed. J.C. van Lenteren), CABI Publishing, Wallingford. pp. 93-113.

Tillman, P. G. and Powell, J. E. 1992. Interspecific discrimination and larval competition among Microplitis croceipes, Microplitis demolitor, Cotesia kazak (Hym, Braconidae), and Hyposoter didymator (Hym, Ichneumonidae), parasitoids of Heliothis virescens (Lep, Noctuidae). Entomophaga 37: 439-51.

van Alphen, J. J. M. and Nell, H. W. 1982. Superparasitism and host discrimination by Asobara tabida Nees (Braconidae: Alysiinae), larval parasitoid of Drosophilidae. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 32: 232-260.

van Alphen, J. J. M. and Visser M. E. 1990. Superparasitism as an adaptive strategy for insect parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 35: 59-79.

van Dijken, M. J. and Waage, J. K. 1987. Self and conspecific superparasitism by the egg parasitoid Trichogramma envanescens. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 30: 77-82.

van Lenteren, J. C. 1976. The development of host discrimination and the prevention of superparasitism in the parasitc Pseudocoilu bochei Weld (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 26: 1-83.

Vinson, S. B. and Sroka, P. 1978. Effect of superparasitism by a solitary endoparasitoid on the host, parasitoid and field saplings. Southwestern Entomologist 3: 299-303.

Visser, M. E., van Alphen, J. J. M. and Nell, H. W. 1990. Adaptive superparasitism and patch time allocation in solitary parasitoids; the influence of the number of parasitoids exploiting a patch. Behaviour 114: 21-36. 

Volkl, W. and Stadler, B. 1991. Interspecific larval competition between Lysiphlebus testaceipes and Aphidius colemani (Hym., Aphidiidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 111: 63-71. 

 Weisser, W. W. and Houston, A. I. 1993. Host discrimination in parasitic wasps: when is it advantageous? Functional Ecology 7: 27-39.

Wylie, H. G. 1983. Delayed development of Microtonus vittatae (Hymenoptera:  Braconidae) in superparasitized adults of Phyllotetra crucifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomologist 115: 441-42.

Yu, D. S., van Achterberg, C. and Horstmann, K. 2013. World Ichneumonoidea 2011. Taxonomy, Biology, Morphology and Distribution. Taxapad (Scientific Names for Information Management), Interactive Catalogue, Ottawa. Retrived May 15, 2016. from: http://www.taxapad.com