بررسی اثر مادری دما بر القای دیاپوز در زنبور پارازیتویید Trichogramma brassicae غیرآلوده و آلوده به باکتریWolbachia

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش حشره شناسی، گروه گیاه پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 بخش حشره‌شناسی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در این تحقیق اثر مادری دما به عنوان یک عامل اکولوژیک محیطی و نیز اثر آلودگی به ولباخیا به عنوان یک عامل ژنتیکی-درونی بر درصد دیاپوز زنبور پارازیتویید Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نسل مادری دو جمعیت آلوده به باکتری ولباخیا (تک­جنسی) و غیرآلوده (دوجنسی) T. brassicaeدر دو دمای 14 و 20 درجه سلسیوس به صورت جداگانه پرورش یافت. یک روز پس از اوج خروج حشرات کامل نسل مادری، 40 زنبور ماده تک ­جنسی و 40 زنبور ماده دوجنسی جفت­گیری کرده (هر دو یک­ روزه و آماده تخم­گذاری) به­ طور جداگانه در لوله های آزمایش شیشه­ ای قرار داده شدند. کارت­ های مقوایی حاوی 100 عدد تخم میزبان شش ساعته، Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae)، در اختیار ماده­ های تخم­گذار تا زمان مرگ آن­ ها قرار داده شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از این تحقیق، آلودگی به ولباخیا و دمای پرورش نسل مادری دارای اثر معنی­ دار بر درصد دیاپوز بود، به طوری­ که افزایش دمای پرورش نسل مادری (دمای 20 درجه سلسیوس) منجر به افزایش درصد دیاپوز در مقایسه با دمای پایین­ تر (14 درجه سلسیوس) شد. درصد دیاپوز در جمعیت دوجنسی بیش از جمعیت تک­ جنسی بود که این امر نشان ­دهنده اثر منفی آلودگی به ولباخیا بر درصد دیاپوز این پارازیتویید است. احتمالاً حضور باکتری ولباخیا سبب از بین رفتن قسمتی از انرژی مورد نیاز جهت مقاومت زنبور پارازیتویید در برابر دمای پایین می­ شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The maternal effect of temperature on diapause induction in Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Trichogramma brassicae

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Rahimi Kaldeh 1
  • A. Ashouri 2
  • A. Bandani 2
  • S. A. Modarres Hasani 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

In present study, the maternal effect of temperature as an ecologic factor and the effect of Wolbachia infection as an inner-genetic factor on diapause percentage of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) were investigated. Maternal generation of both infected (asexual) and uninfected (sexual) populations were reared separately at 14 and 20°C. After maximum adult emergence (24 hours), asexual females and sexual-mated females (both 24h old) were separately selected and placed in glass test tubes. Each of them were supplied with a cardboard which included 100 eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae) (6 hours old). The results revealed that Wolbachia infection and rearing temperature of maternal generation had significant effect on diapause percentage of T. brassicae. When rearing temperature increased, the diapause percentage had increased too. Diapause percentage in uninfected (sexual) population was higher than infected (asexual) ones which show the negative effect of Wolbachia infection. Probably, presence of Wolbachia causes energy reduction in facing low temperature. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diapause
  • Parasitoid
  • Temperature
  • Trichogramma brassicae
  • Wolbachia
Almeida, R. 2004. Trichogramma and its relationship with Wolbachia: Identification of Trichogramma species, phylogeny, transfer and costs of Wolbachia symbionts. PhD. Thesis. Wageningen University.

Boivin, G. 1994. Overwintering strategies of egg parasitoids. In Wajnberg, E. and Hassan, S. A. (Eds.). Biological control with egg parasitoids. CAB International, Wallingford. pp. 219-244.

Bordenstein, S. R. and Werren, J. H. 2000. Do Wolbachia influence fecundity in Nasonia vitripennis? Heredity 84: 54-62.

Chernysh, S. I., Simonenko, N. P. and Numata, H. 1995. Sensitive stage for the diapause-averting effect of high temperature in the blowfly, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 30: 498-499.

Denlinger, D. L., Yocum, G. D. and Rinehart, J. P. 2012. Hormonal control of diapause. In Gilbert, L. I. (Ed.). Insect Endocrinology. Elsevier, UK. pp. 430-463.

Ebrahimi, E., Pintureau, B. and Shojai, M. 1998. Morphological and enzymatic study of the genus Trichogramma in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 66: 39-43.

Farrokhi, S., Ashouri, A., Shirazi, J., Allahyari, H. and Huigens, M. E. 2010. A comparative study on the functional response of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected forms of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae. Journal of Insect Science 10 (167): 1-11.

Fukumoto, E., Numata, H. and Shiga, S. 2006. Effects of temperature of adults and eggs on the induction of embryonic diapause in the band-legged ground cricket, Dianemobius nigrofasciatus. Physiological Entomology 31: 211-217.

Garcia, P. and Tavares, J. 2001. Effect of host viability on Trichogramma cordubensis (Insecta: Hymenoptera) reproductive strategies. Arquipelago–Life and Marine Sciences Suppl (Part B) 2: 43-49.

Heimpel, G. E. and Lundgren, J. G. 2000. Sex ratios of commercially reared biological control agents. Biological Control 19: 77-93.

Huigens, M. E. 2003. On the evolution of Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in Trichogramma wasps. PhD. Thesis. Wageningen University.

Hurst, G. D. D., Johnson, A. P., Schulenburg, J. H. G. V. D. and Fuyama, Y. 2000. Male-killing Wolbachia in Drosophila: a temperature-sensitive trait with a threshold bacterial density. Genetics 156: 699-709.

Jarosik, V., Honek, A., Magarey, R. D. and Skuhrovec, J. 2011. Developmental database for phenology models: related insect and mite species have similar thermal requirements. Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 1870-1876.

Kishani Farahani, H., Ashouri, A., Goldansaz, S. H., Farrokhi, S., Ainouche, A. and van Baaren, J. 2015. Does Wolbachia infection affect decision-making in a parasitic wasp? Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 155 (2): 102-116.

Laing, J. E. and Corrigan, J. E. 1995. Diapause induction and post-diapause emergence in Trichogramma minutum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): the role of host species, temperature, and photoperiod. Canadian Entomologist 127: 103-110.

Ma, C. S. and Chen, Y. W. 2006. Effects of constant temperature, exposure period, and age on diapause induction in Trichogramma dendrolimi. Biological Control 36: 267-273.

Mai, F. K. and Zaslavskii, V. A. 1983. Photoperiodic and thermal responses of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 62: 1676-1680.

Pintureau, B., Pizzol, J. and Bolland, P. 2003. Effects of endosymbiotic Wolbachia on the diapause in Trichogramma hosts and effects of the diapause on Wolbachia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 106: 193-200.

Poorjavad, N. 2011. Morphological, molecular and reproductive compatibility studies on the systematic of the genus Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Tehran and Mazandran province (Iran). PhD. Thesis. University of Tehran.

Reznik, S. Y., Vaghina, N. P. and Voinovich, N. D. 2008. Diapause induction in Trichogramma embryophagum Htg. (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae): the dynamics of thermosensitivity. Journal of Applied Entomology 132: 502-509.

Reznik, S. Y., Vaghina, N. P. and Voinovich, N. D. 2011. Maternal influence on diapause induction in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae): the dynamics of photosensitivity. Journal of Applied Entomology 135: 438-445.

Saunders, D. S., Steel, C. G. H., Vafopoulou, X. and Lewis, R. D. 2002. Insect clocks (3rd ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Shintani, Y. and Higuchi, H. 2008. Developmental parameters and photoperiodism in Trigonotylus tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Applied Entomology Zoology 43: 259-264.

Smith, S. M. 1996. Biological control with Trichogramma: advances, successes, and potential of their use. Annual Review of Entomology 41: 375-406.

Sorokina, A. P. and Maslennikova, V. A. 1986. The peculiarities of photo-thermal reactions in selected species of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Vestnik Leningrad Gos University 3 (1): 9-14.

Sorokina, A. P. and Maslennikova, V. A. 1987. Temperature optimum for diapause induction in species of the genus Trichogramma Westw. (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 66 (4): 689-699.

Sorokina, A. P. 2010. Photo-thermal reactions controlling diapause in three species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) from Leningrad province. Vestnik Zasch Rast 3: 51-54.

Stouthamer, R. and Kazmer, D. J. 1994. Cytogenetics of microbe-associated parthenogenesis and its consequences for gene flow in Trichogramma wasps. Journal of Heredity 73: 317-327.

Tauber, M. J., Tauber, C. A. and Masaki, S. 1986. Seasonal Adaptations of Insects. Oxford University Press, New York.

Tachibana, S. I. and Numata, H. 2004. Parental and direct effects of photoperiod and temperature on the induction of larval diapause in the blow fly Lucilia sericata. Physiological Entomology 29: 39-44.

Vaghina, N. P., Voinovich, N. D. and Reznik, S. Y. 2014. Maternal thermal and photoperiodic effects on the progeny diapause in Trichogramma telengai Sorokina (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Entomological Science 17: 198-206.

Voinovich, N. D., Umarova, T. Y., Kats, T. S. and Reznik, S. Y. 2002. The role of endogenous factors in diapause induction in Trichogramma embryophagum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Entomological Review 82 (9): 1233-1237.

Voinovich, N. D., Vaghina, N. P. and Reznik, S. Y. 2013. Comparative analysis of maternal and grand-maternal photoperiodic responses of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). European Journal of Entomology 110: 451-460.

Zaslavskii, V. A. and Umarova, T. Y. 1990. Environmental and endogenous control of diapause in Trichogramma species. Entomophaga 35: 23-29.