اثر قارچ بیمارگر (Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales بر رفتارکاوشگری زنبور پارازیتویید ( Aphidius matricariae (Hym.: Braconidae در شرایط نیمه طبیعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکدة علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 پژوهشگاه تنوع زیستی و دینامیک اکوسیستم، دانشگاه آمستردام، هلند

چکیده

در این تحقیق، اثر قارچ بیمارگر Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) بر رفتار کاوشگری زنبور پارازیتویید Aphidius matricariae Haliday (Hym.: Braconidae) روی گیاه بادمجان کامل در شرایط نیمه طبیعی ارزیابی شد. آزمایش بویایی ­سنج Y- شکل نشان داد حضور قارچ باعث دور شدن افراد پارازیتویید و بالعکس باعث جلب آن‌ها به بازوی فاقد قارچ شد. افراد پارازیتویید به طور معنی ­دار به سمت هوای پاک (شاهد) حرکت کردند. در حالی­ که عده کمی ‌به سمت گیاه بادمجان خسارت دیده آلوده با اجساد شته حاوی قارچ جلب شدند. همچنین، آزمون غیر انتخابی اثر اجساد شته حاوی اسپور قارچ بر رفتار کاوشگری پارازیتویید ثابت کرد وجود قارچ به طور معنی­داری باعث کاهش تعداد تلاش‌های تخم­ریزی افراد ماده شد. در آزمون انتخابی، پارازیتویید مدت زمان بیشتری روی گیاه خسارت دیده سپری کرد و گیاه سالم را در مدت زمان کمتری ترک نمود. حضور یا عدم حضور قارچ بر زمان ترک کلونی شته توسط زنبور پارازیتویید اثر معنی­دار نداشت. نتایج نشان داد زنبور پارازیتویید A. matricariae قادر به تشخیص قارچ بیمارگر بود و از ورود به کلنی شته های آلوده اجتناب کرد. با این حال، زمانی که پارازیتویید به یک کلنی آلوده وارد شد از تخمریزی و تماس با قارچ خودداری کرد. نتایج نشان داد که علایم شیمیایی ارسال شده از گیاه بادمجان و قارچ بیمارگر B. bassiana جدایة EUT116 نقش مهمی را در اتخاذ تصمیم‌های بهینه برای کاوشگری و افزایش شایستگی زنبور پارازیتویید A. matricariae در جهت کنترل شته سبز هلو بازی می‌کنند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) on foraging behaviour of parasitoid wasp, Aphidius matricariae (Hym.: Braconidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Rashki 1
  • A. Kharazi-pakdel 1
  • H. Allahyari 1
  • J. van Alphen 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Science and Agricultural Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam University, The Netherlands
چکیده [English]

The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales), on foraging behaviour of the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius matricariae Haliday (Hym.: Braconidae), on whole eggplant under microcosm conditions. A Y-tube olfactometer experiment showed the presence of the fungus caused avoidance of the parasitoid and conversely, its attraction towards the empty arm. Although most of A. matricariae significantly moved towards clean air (control), but a few were attracted to damaged eggplants infested with the sporulating aphid cadavers. Moreover, no-choice test for the effect of sporulating aphid cadaver on foraging behaviour of the A. matricariae revealed that the presence of the fungus significantly reduced the number of ovipositional attempts. In choice test, the parasitoid spent more time on damaged plants than on intact ones. The presence or absence of the fungus had no impact on allocation time of the parasitoid in an aphid colony. The results indicated that the parasitoid wasp, A. matricariae, was able to distinguish the entomopathogenic fungus and avoided entering the infected aphid colony. Nevertheless, when the parasitoid entered to an infected colony, it avoided contacting with the fungus or ovipositing. The results indicated thatthe released chemical cues of eggplant and also those of the entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana isolate EUT116, play an important role in the foraging decision making and also for increasing itsfitnessto control the green peach aphid.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • searching
  • fitness
  • patch
  • plant condition
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