نیازهای گرمایی زنبور پارازیتوئید Diaeretiella rapae (Hym.: Braconidae) پرورش‌یافته روی شته Schizaphis graminum (Hem.: Aphididae) در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


گروه حشره شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران


گندم، Triticum aestivum L. یکی از مهم­ترین گیاهان زراعی در سراسر جهان است که فقط برای تغذیه کشت می­شود. شته سبز گندم، Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hem.: Aphididae) یک آفت مهم گندم در ایران است که خسارت زیادی به محصول وارد می­کند. دراین پژوهش، نیازهای گرمایی زنبور Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) روی شته سبز گندم، در پنج دمای ثابت (10، 15، 20، 25 و 5/27 درجه سلسیوس)، رطوبت نسبی 5±60 درصد و دوره نوری 8:16 ساعت (روشنایی: تاریکی) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که دما اثر معنی­دار بر طول دوره رشد قبل از بلوغ داشت، به­طوری­که میانگین بیشترین و کمترین طول کل دوره رشدی قبل از بلوغ زنبور D. rapaeبه ترتیب در دمای 10 (09/0±49/25 روز) و 25 درجه سلسیوس (05/0±24/9 روز) مشاهده شد. اثر دما بر نرخ رشد زنبور D.rapae با استفاده از مدل­های خطی و غیرخطی برازش داده شد. دمای آستانه پایین و ثابت گرمایی زنبور D. rapae با استفاده از مدل رگرسیون خطی به ترتیب 21/3 درجه سلسیوس و 36/229 روز-درجه به دست آمد. مدل­ Briere-1 برازش به­نسبت بالایی در برآورد داده­ها نشان داد. همچنین، دمای آستانه پایین، دمای بهینه و دمای آستانه بالا به­وسیله این مدل به خوبی تخمین زده شد. بنابراین،  مدل Briere-1 به عنوان یک مدل مناسب برای توصیف دوره رشد و نمو قبل از بلوغ زنبور پارازیتویید D. rapae روی شته S. graminum تعیین شد. در این تحقیق، مدل خطی و مهم­ترین مدل­های غیر خطی گرمایی و معیارهای انتخاب مدل مناسب مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Thermal requirements of parasitoid wasp, Diaretiella rapae (Hym.: Braconidae) reared on Schizaphis graminum (Hem.: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Kazemi
  • A. A. Talebi
  • Z. Tazerouni
  • Y. , Fathipour,
  • M. Rezaei
  • M. Mehrabadi
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. is of one the most important cultivated crop plants that are grown extensively for food in the world. The green wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hem.: Aphididae) is an important pest of wheat in Iran causes severe damage to the crop. In this research, thermal requirements of parasitoid wasp, Diaretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hym.: Braconidae)on the green wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hem.: Aphididae) were assessed at five constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 27.5ºC), 60±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D hours. The results showed that temperature had significant effect on developmental time. The mean of longest and shortest preimaginal period were observed at 10ºC (25.49±0.09 day) and 25ºC (9.24±0.05 day), respectively. Effect of temperature on developmental time of D. rapae was fitted using linear and non-linear models. The lower temperature threshold and thermal constant of D. rapae were 3.21ºC and 229.36 DD, respectively using linear regression model. The non-linear model Berier 1 had relative high goodness- of- fit. T0, Topt and Tmax were fitted well using this model. Therefore, Berier 1 model was determined for the description of temperature-dependent development of D. rapae on S. graminum. In this research, the linear and most common nonlinear thermalmodels and the criteria for selecting appropriate models are evaluated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • lower temperature threshold
  • thermal constant
  • parasitoid wasp
  • degree-day
  • biological control
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