تغییرات جمعیت سپردار توتPseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hem.: Diaspididae) و میزان پارازیتیسم آن در باغ‌های کیوی استان گیلان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان، بخش گیاه‌پزشکی، رشت، ایران

10.22124/iprj.2019.3774

چکیده

آفت سپردار­ توت (Targioni)Pseudaulacaspis pentagonaدر سال­های اخیر به باغ­های کیوی گیلان سرایت و باعث نگرانی باغداران شده است. خسارت آفت با تغذیه حشره بالغ و پوره­ها از شیره گیاه است که سبب ضعف و زوال تدریجی درختان می­شود. در این پژوهش طی سال‏های 94 تا 96، تغییرات جمعیت و میزان پارازیتیسم آفت در سه بخش استان گیلان (غرب، شرق و مرکز) که بیشترین سطح زیر کشت باغ­های کیوی را دارند، بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که سپردار توت در هر سه منطقه با درصد آلودگی متفاوت فعالیت دارد و عامل نوسان دمایی و پارازیتیسم زنبور Encarsia berlesei Howardروی شپشک به عنوان عوامل محدودکننده محسوب می­شوند. الگوی توزیع فضایی پوره و حشرات کامل این آفت در سه منطقه و طی سه سال پژوهش، تجمعی و تصادفی به­دست آمد. بیشترین تراکم آفت در سال 1394 در شرق گیلان (25/14 ± 4/88 عدد سپردار بالغ زنده در 10 سانتی­متر از شاخه آلوده) بود، در حالی که در سال 1395، 09/4 ± 4/40 و در سال 96، 24/3 ± 8/77 ثبت شد. در تمام مناطق نمونه­برداری، زنبور پارازیتویید، E. berlesei از فعالیت قابل توجهی برخوردار بود. بیشترین میانگین پارازیتیسم در سال 1395 در حوزه غرب گیلان (78/38 سپر پارازیته شده در10 سانتی­متر از شاخه آلوده) ثبت شد. فعالیت این آفت در مناطق مختلف استان گیلان و درصد پارازیتیسم به­نسبت بالای آن توسط زنبور پارازیتویید می تواند در برنامه‏های مدیریت تلفیقی آن مورد توجه جدی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Population fluctuations of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hem.: Diaspididae) and its parasitism rate in Kiwi fruit orchards of Guilan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. R. Abbasi Mojdehi
  • S. Ghannad Amooz
Plant Protection Research Department, Gilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The mulberry scale pest Pseudoulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) (Hem.: Diaspididae) has entered Kiwi orchards causing worries to gardeners in recent years. The damages of this pest by feeding of both adults and nymphs from host plant sap, which weakens the plant and cause gradual death of the tree. In the current study, three geographical regions of Guilan province (i.e. west, east, and central) where the kiwi fruit is largely planted were selected. During 2015-2016 pest population changes and the rate of pest parasitism were studied. The results indicated variations in pest density in the studied areas. The spatial distribution pattern of nymphs and adults of these regions were aggregated and random. The highest pest density was recorded in 2015 from the east of Guilan (88.4 ± 14.25 adult scales in 10cm) while, 40.4 ± 4.09 and 77.8 ± 3.24 were recorded in 2016 and 2017 respectively. The Temperature fluctuations and parasitism by Encarsia berlesei Howard were found to be the limiting factors for pest activity. The presence of parasite was found to be remarkable in sampled areas. The highest number of parasitized was recorded in the third generation (38.78 parasited adult scales in 10 cm) from east Guilan in 2015. The annual parasitic activity rate of this parasitoid can be considered as one of the most important options in management of mulberry scale pest on the kiwi. The results could be improved and incorporated in management of this important pest.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • White mulberry
  • Kiwi fruit
  • Sampling
  • Spatial distribution
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