تاثیر آبیاری روی رشد جمعیت شته انار (Aphis punicae (Hem.: Aphididae

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان

2 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان

چکیده

شته سبز انار (Aphis punicae (Passerini) (Hem., Aphididae با تغذیه از شیره گیاهی و همچنین ترشح عسلک فراوان می­تواند موجب خسارت به درختان انار شود. با توجه به خشکسالی ­های اخیر که آبیاری باغ­های انار را دچار مشکل کرده است، تاثیر آبیاری روی پارامتر­های جدول زندگی شته انار با نصب قفس ­های برگی روی نهال انار بررسی شد. آزمایش در شرایط گلخانه (نور طبیعی، دمای 5±30 درجه سلسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 10±50 درصد)­ با تیمارهای شاهد (آبیاری 100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی)، تنش خشکی متوسط (75 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و تنش خشکی شدید (50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) روی نهال­های انار، رقم رباب انجام شد.  برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ­ها از نرم ­افزار جدول زندگی دو جنسی ویژه سن مرحله رشدی و برای ایجاد تکرار کاذب از روش بوت­ استرپ با تعداد 10000 مرتبه استفاده شد. بیش­ترین میانگین تعداد پوره به ازای هر ماده (54/16 پوره)، طول عمر افراد ماده بالغ (14/7 روز)، نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (39/0 بر روز)، نرخ متناهی افزایش جمعیت (74/1 بر روز) و نرخ خالص تولید مثل (19/15 پوره) شته انار روی نهال­هایی با سطح تنش خشکی متوسط دیده شد. بیش­ترین میانگین مدت زمان یک نسل شته انار (02/8 روز) روی نهال ­های تیمار شاهد دیده شد. میزان فنول، پرولین و قندهای محلول برگ با افزایش میزان خشکی افزایش یافت و بیش­ترین مقدار در گیاهان تحت تنش خشکی شدید اندازه­گیری شد. با توجه به اینکه بیشترین رشد جمعیت شته انار مربوط به سطح تنش خشکی متوسط می­باشد، به نظر می­رسد در این سطح آبیاری بالاترین کیفیت گیاه میزبان برای شته حاصل شده است. همچنین تنش خشکی شدید می ­تواند با افزایش سطح ترکیبات دفاعی گیاه، کاهش رشد جمعیت شته را به دنبال داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of irrigation on population growth of pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae (Hem.: Aphididae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Ahmadi 1
  • N. Poorjavad 1
  • M. Gholami 2
1 1. Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae (Passerini) (Hem.: Aphididae), damages pomegranate trees through feeding and producing considerable amounts of honeydew. The effect of drought stress on fertility-life table parameters of A. punicae was studied by using leaf cages on plant in three treatments including control (irrigation at 100% of field capacity), moderately (at 75% of field capacity) and highly (at 50% of field capacity) drought stressed pomegranate plants (Robab cultivar) in greenhouse (natural photoperiod, 30±5˚C and 50±10% RH). Life table parameters and their pseudo-replication were calculated by a computer program for the age-stage two sex life table analysis and bootstrap technique (10000 replications), respectively. The highest mean number of nymphs per female (16.54 nymphs), female adult longevity (7.14 days), the intrinsic rate of increase (0.39 day-1), the finite capacity for increase (1.74 day-1) and the net reproductive rate (15.19 nymphs) were observed in aphids that reared on moderately drought stressed trees. The highest mean generation time of A. punicae was 8.02 days in aphids reared at control condition. Amount of proline, phenol and soluble carbohydrate in leaves increased by increasing drought stress and the highest amount were measured in plant under highly drought stress. Considering that the highest population growth rate of pomegranate aphid calculated in plants under moderately drought stress, it seems that the highest quality of host plant for aphids obtained under this irrigation condition. Also, highly drought stress can lead to a decrease in aphid population growth by increasing the level of plant defensive compounds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pomegranate
  • Fertility life table
  • Intrinsic rate of increase
  • Drought stress
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