درصد پارازیتیسم، طول عمر و پارازیتیسم روزانه زنبور پارازیتویید Encarsia berlesei روی سپردار توت، Pseudaulacaspis pentagona، و واکنش تابعی آن به تراکم پوره های سن دوم سپردار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان

2 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان

چکیده

     سپردار سفید توت Pseudaulacaspis pentagona، آفتی با دامنه میزبانی وسیع است که در استان­ های شمالی کشور یکی از آفات مهم درختان توت و از جمله موانع مهم در پرورش کرم ابریشم می باشد. در پژوهش حاضر، کارایی زنبور پارازیتویید اختصاصی این آفت، Encarsia berlesei، طی سه آزمایش: (1) بررسی درصد پارازیتیسم زنبور به تفکیک مرحله نشوونمایی میزبان (آزمون­های انتخابی و غیرانتخابی)؛ (2) بررسی طول عمر، میانگین روزانه و میانگین کل پارازیتیسم؛ و (3) واکنش ­تابعی به تغییرات تراکم میزبان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در آزمون غیرانتخابی، میانگین پارازیتیسم در حضور پوره­­ های سن اول و دوم و سپردار ماده به ترتیب 0/0، 02/11 و 84/3 درصد، و در آزمون انتخابی در حضور پوره سن دوم و سپردار ماده به ترتیب 26/10 و 2 درصد محاسبه شد. میانگین طول عمر زنبور پارازیتویید در نبود میزبان 10 روز و در حضور آن 4 روز برآورد شد. تخمگذاری در روزهای اول روندی افزایشی و در روزهای آخر عمر روندی کاهشی را نشان داد. میانگین کل پارازیتیسم 4/28 عدد میزبان به ازای هر عدد زنبور ماده محاسبه شد. واکنش­تابعی زنبور برای پوره­های سن دوم از نوع III بود. قدرت جستجوگری 000057/0 ± 0003/0 و زمان دسترسی به میزبان 52/0 ± 695/3 ساعت به دست آمد. طبق نتایج، به ویژه با توجه به طول عمر پارازیتویید، به نظر می ­رسد که E. berlesei یک دشمن طبیعی کارآمد برای کنترل بیولوژیک سپردار توت ­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Percentage parasitism, adult longevity and daily parasitism of the parasitoid wasp, Encarsia berlesei on white peach scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, and its functional response to second instars of the scale insect

نویسندگان [English]

  • P. Ali Akbar Aghadokht 1
  • M. H. Sarailoo 1
  • M. Yazdanian 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Mulberry white scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.-Tozz.) is a polyphagous pest with a wide range of hosts and is one of the most important pests of mulberry trees in Northern provinces of Iran. It is said to be one of the restricting factor in commercial sericulture. In the present study, efficacy of the specialist parasitoid wasp of this pest, Encarsia berlesei, was investigated under three distinct experiments: (1) percentage parasitism on different developmental stages of the host (choice test vs no-choice test); (2) adults' longevity, daily and overall mean rate of parasitism; and (3) functional response to host density changes. In no-choice test, the average parasitism in the presence of first and second instars and adult female were 0.0%, 11.02% and 3.84%, respectively. In choice test, the mean parasitism in the presence of second instars and adult females were as 10.26% and 2%, respectively. Mean longevity of adults in the presence and absence of the host were 4 and 10 days, respectively. The egg laying had an ascending order in early period and a descending order in the late period of adult stage. Overall, the mean parasitism was 28.4 hosts per female parasitoid. The wasp parasitism rate followed a type III functional response. The searching efficiency was 0.0003 ± 0.000057h-1 and the handling time was 3.695 ± 0.520 h. According to the results, especially considering the adult parasitoid longevity, it seems that E. berlesei is an efficient natural enemy for biological control of the Mulberry white scale.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Parasitoid
  • Scale insect
  • Searching efficiency
  • choice and no-choice tests
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