تاثیر سیستم های کشت نواری کلزای بهاره و شبدر در بهبود کنترل طبیعی (.Plutella xylostella (L

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه گیاه‌پزشکی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

شب­ پره پشت­ الماسی، (.Plutella xylostella (L آفت مهم کلزا در ایران است. در این تحقیق، تاثیر چهار تیمار شامل کشت­ نواری دو، چهار و شش ردیف کلزا (Ca) در تناوب با دو ردیف شبدر (Cl) (2Ca: 2Cl, 4Ca: 2Cl, and 6Ca: 2Cl) و تک­ کشتی کلزا در تراکم P. xylostella، تنوع گون ه­ای شکارگرهای آن، درصد تخ م­ها، لاروها و شفیره­ های پارازیته شده و عملکرد محصول در شرایط مزرعه واقع در منطقه اردبیل در طول دو سال­ 1394 و 1395 مطالعه شد. تراکم تخم ­ها، لاروها و شفیره ­های شب ­پره در تک­کشتی کلزا به ­طور معنی ­داری بیشتر از هر سه سیستم کشت نواری بود. شاخص تنوع شانون (H) برای ترکیب گون ه­ای شکارگرهای شب­پره در هر سه تیمار کشت نواری به ­طور معنی ­داری بیشتر از تک­ کشتی کلزا بود. مقدار شاخص شباهت تنوع گونه­ ای موریسیتا­-هورن (CMH) برای ترکیب گونه ­ای شکارگرهای شب ­پره بین نظام تک­ کشتی کلزا با هر یک از تیمارهای کشت نواری (898/0≤ CMH) کمتر از مقدار این شاخص بین سه تیمار کشت نواری (957/0≤ CMH) بود. درصد تخم ­ها، لاروها و شفیره ­های پارازیته شده در هر سه سیستم کشت نواری به­ طور معنی ­داری بیشتر از تک­ کشتی کلزا بود. علاوه­ بر آن، درصد تخم ­ها و لاروهای پارازیته شده در 2Ca: 2Cl به ­طور معنی­ داری بیشتر از 6Ca: 2Cl بود. همچنین، درصد کاهش وزن خشک دانه­ ها به ازای یک گیاه کلزا در 2Ca: 2Cl و 4Ca: 2Cl به طور مع نی­داری کمتر از سایر تیمارهای مورد مطالعه بود. این نتایج نشان می ­دهند که کشت نواری 2Ca: 2Cl و 4Ca: 2Cl می­ تواند در مدیریت تلفیقی P. xylostellaدر مزارع کلزا مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of strip-intercropping of spring canola with clover in improvement of natural biological control of Plutella xylostella (L.)

نویسنده [English]

  • S. A. A. Fathi
Department of Plant Protection, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is an important pest of canola in Iran. In this study, the effect of four treatments including strip-intercropping of two, four and six rows of canola with two rows of clover (2Ca: 2Cl, 4Ca: 2Cl, and 6Ca: 2Cl) and canola monoculture were studied on the population density of P. xylostella, species diversity of its predators, parasitism on eggs, larvae and pupae, and associated yield of canola under the field conditions in Ardabil region during 2015 and 2016. The density of eggs, larvae and pupae were significantly higher in monoculture than in intercrops. Moreover, the density of larvae and pupae was lower in 2Ca: 2Cl than in 6Ca: 2Cl. Shannon diversity index (H') for predators' species composition of moth was higher in intercrops than in monoculture. The values of Morisita–Horn index (CMH) for predators species composition of moth between canola monoculture and each of the three intercrops (CMH ≤ 0.897) were lower in comparision with the values of this index among the three intercrops (CMH ≥ 0.957). The percent parasitism for eggs, larvae and pupae was significantly higher in intercrops than in monoculture. Moreover, the percent parasitism for eggs and larvae was higher in 2Ca: 2Cl than in 6Ca: 2Cl. The dry seed weight loss was also lower in 2Ca: 2Cl and 4Ca: 2Cl in comparison with other two treatments. Thsese results indicated that intercropping 2Ca: 2Cl and 4Ca: 2C could be useful in integrated management of P. xylostella in canola fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canola
  • intercrop
  • species abundance
  • species richness
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