زیست شناسی شپشک آردآلود پنبه (Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hem.: Pseudococcidae روی درختچه ختمی چینی در شرایط صحرایی اهواز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

شپشک آردآلود پنبه Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley آفتی مخرب در مناطق گرمسیری و نیمه گرمسیری جهان می­باشد که به تازگی آلودگی­ های شدیدی روی درختچه ختمی چینی Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. در جنوب ایران ایجاد کرده است. پژوهش حاضر زیست شناسی این شپشک را روی این درختچه به عنوان مهم­ ترین میزبان آن در اهواز در شرایط صحرایی در سال­ های 93-1392 مورد بررسی قرار داد. نتایج بررسی ­ها نشان داد که این شپشک در تمام طول سال در اهواز فعال بوده و 11 نسل را سپری می­ کند.کوتاه­ ترین نسل­ های آن نسل­ های سوم، چهارم و پنجم می ­باشند که از نیمه دوم اردیبهشت تا نیمه دوم تیر به­ ترتیب 84/0±63/21، 01/1±48/21 و 55/1±11/23 روز بدون اختلاف معنی ­دار طول کشیدند. نسل یازدهم به عنوان طولانی­ ترین نسل از اواسط آذر شروع و تا اوایل فروردین به مدت 63/19±20/90 روز به طول انجامید. نحوه­ ی تولیدمثل ماده ها به صورت دوجنسی بود و در هیچ کدام از نسل­ ها بکرزایی مشاهده نشد. بیشترین میانگین باروری متعلق به ماده­ های نسل هشتم در مهر ماه و به میزان 00/35±19/432 پوره بود. کمترین میانگین باروری نیز در ماده­های نسل دهم در زمستان و به میزان 33/1±58/10 تخم مشاهده شد. کمترین و بیشترین نسبت جنسی به­ ترتیب 69% و 96% و در نسل­ های نهم و یازدهم مشاهده شد. نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که شپشک آردآلود پنبه روی درختچه­ ی ختمی چینی از ظرفیت تولیدمثل بالایی برخوردار بوده و می ­تواند به خوبی در شرایط نامساعد تابستان اهواز به رشد و نمو خود ادامه دهد. این نتایج می­ تواند در تعیین راهکارهای مدیریت این آفت مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Field biology of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hem.: Pseudococcidae) on Chinese hibiscus shrubs in Ahvaz, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Seyfollahi
  • M. Esfandiari
  • M. S. Mossadegh
  • A. Rasekh
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is an invasive pest species in tropical and subtropical regions and recently has caused severe infestations on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in southern Iran. In the present study, field biology of this pest was investigated on Chinese hibiscus shrubs as its important host plant in Ahvaz during 2013-2014. Results indicated that P. solenopsis has completed 11 generations per year. The shortest generation times were 3rd, 4th and 5th from early May to early July which lasted 21.63±0.84, 21.48±1.01 and 23.11±1.55 days, respectively, with no significant difference.  The 11th generation was the longest and occurred from early December to late March for 90.20±19.61 days. The reproduction mode in all generations was bisexual and none of unmated females did parthenogenetic reproduction. The highest fecundity was calculated as 432.15±35.00 offspring / female for 8th generation in September and the lowest belonged (10.58±1.33 offspring / female) to 10th generation in winter. The highest and lowest sex ratio of females in total population were obtained in 11th generation (%96) and 9th generation (%69), respectively. According to present results, the cotton mealybug has high reproductive potential on Chinese hibiscus shrub and is able to develop well in unfavorable hot summers of Ahvaz. These results can be used in control management of this pest.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phenacoccus solenopsis
  • Chinese hibiscus
  • Fecundity
  • Developmental time
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