زیست‌شناسی و نیازهای دمایی زنبور مغزخوار بادام Eurytoma amygdali در منطقه زرین‌شهر اصفهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر رفسنجان

چکیده

زنبور مغز خوار بادام، (Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae، یکی از آفات مهم درختان بادام در ایران است. این آفت می ­تواند تا 90% محصول را از بین ببرد. به­ دلیل اهمیت این آفت و نبود اطلاعات کافی از فنولوژی آن، در این پژوهش فنولوژی زنبور مغزخوار بادام در منطقه زرین­ شهر اصفهان مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. در این منطقه درصد لاروهای با دیاپوز طولانی در سال 1394، حدود 30 درصد برآورد شد.آستانه حداقل دمایی برای فعالیت این آفت 214/7 درجه سلسیوس تعیین شد. همچنین دمای موثر برای دوره شفیرگی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی 93/2±03/237 درجه-روز برآورد شد. مطالعه فنولوژی زنبور مغز­خوار بادام نشان داد که در شرایط آب­ و­هوایی زرین‌شهر، پایان دوره شفیرگی این آفت در تاریخ 10/1/1394 (حدود 139 درجه-روز) رخ می ­دهد و اوج ظهور حشرات کامل در تاریخ 5/2/1394 (حدود 357 درجه-روز) انجام می­ شود. اوج تخم­ریزی در تاریخ 11/2/1394 (حدود 313 درجه-روز) رخ داد. اندازه مناسب میوه برای تخم­ریزی حشرات بین 5/1×5/2 تا 4/2×5/3 سانتی­متر برآورد شد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biology and thermal requirements of the almond seed wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hym.: Eurytomidae) in Zarinshar, Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Khanmohamadi 1
  • J. Khajehali 1
  • H. Izadi 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The almond seed wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hym.: Eurytomidae) is a key pest of almond in Iran. The pest may destroy, in some cases, up to 90% of the almond seeds. Because of the pest importance and the lack of adequate information on its phenology in Isfahan, this study was carried out to investigate the phenology of the almond seed wasp. About 30% of the larvae showed prolonged diapause in the Zarainshahr region in 2015. The lower temperature threshold of the pest was estimated 7.214 °C and thermal constant for pupal stage under the laboratory conditions was 237.03±2.93 degree-days. Phenological study in Zarinshar showed that termination of pest pupation occurred in 30.3.2015 (by about 139 degree-days). Adult peak emergence occurred on 25.4.2015 (by about 358 degree-days). Peak of the egg laying was observed in 1.5.2015 (by 313.5 degree-days). Suitable fruit size for egg laying was estimated to be about 1.5×2.5 - 2.4×3.5 cm. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Eurytoma amygdali
  • Phenology
  • Temperature threshold
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